Just some more evidence that you need to read the primary sources if you want to be able to interpret stats. This is a strategy I have never seen before - quite creative, actually.
Let's see if you would've noticed:
Overall, the 17 items can be grouped into hands-off (eight items, e.g., sexual comments, voyeurism, exhibitionism, distribution of sexual images) and hands-on sexual victimization (nine items). The latter being further grouped into sexual abuse (four items: unwanted kissing, fondling/rubbing, undressing, and touching during care) and attempted or completed rape (five items: (attempted) oral penetration, (attempted) vaginal/anal penetration, being forced to penetrate someone else).
Sooo, quite clear, isn't it? They included mtp as a form of rape!
Well, and maybe a little typo... or is it? More on that in a second.
A belgian survey has once again tried to measure the prevalence of sexual violence in a nationally representative sample and has given 12-month-prevalences - which have been shown to be completely different from lifetime prevalences and thus should be prioritized when not wanting to give a history lesson. Keep in mind that not everything is as dynamic as this and thus older data on other things might still be very useful - especially if it is the methodologically or otherwise best info you have. The reason to dismiss lifetime rape stats is that we know that, be it in the US or in the EU, there are practically no similarities between lifetime and 12-month rape victimization stats (in the context of this paper, the term rape de-facto includes mtp).
So let's start with the good news: they classified what they called made-to-penetrate as rape. This should be standard and in no way praiseworthy, but unfortunately it isn't.
Edit: By the way, oral penetration was split off into its own item that now simply read "Someone had oral sex with me or made me give oral sex against my will."
Now to the problems:
a) As expected, fingering (simulation of intercourse by hand) was rape but jerking off (simulation of intercourse by hand) was not made-to-penetrate/rape. Same goes for dildo vs. fleshlight and body parts + objects as a whole. Even worse, they did count making one penetrate someone else with an object but not the penetration of an object with a penis. It is almost as if they're making fun of it at this point (though the jerking one might be more meaningful in terms of numbers).
b) They asked the questions as "did X against my will" instead of suggesting things like intoxifications, threats, abuse, etc. See appendix A: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307212/#app1-ijerph-18-07360 For women, it is well known that a lot of these equate to "non-consent". For men, the concept of non-consent as a whole is still questioned (I will post another story on that later...) and they may thus be hesitant to call it "against my will" - after all, the stigma is that that should not even be an option and one "should have enjoyed it" instead. Others may have internalized the myth that an erection means wanting it. It is well established that men are conditioned not to allow themselves the victim-status and are multiple times as likely to deny their rape, even when the behaviors they described are de-facto rape or there a documented histories of abuse:
It is interesting that less than one fifth (16%) of the men with documented cases of sexual abuse considered their early experiences to have been sexual abuse, compared with 64% of the sexually abused women (Table 3). https://www.jimhopper.com/pdf/widom1997.pdf
Of those rape victims, around 9 in 10 did not allow themselves the term rape - despite excluding less recognized forms (envelopment). In a 2016 meta-analysis on women, female victims were found to be about 4 times more likely than that to allow themselves that term without excluding forms. https://www.reddit.com/r/LeftWingMaleAdvocates/comments/nlsy03/study_1_in_7_men_experience_attempted_or/
Male rape is one of the least discussed crimes in our society (Groth and Burgess, 1980)[...]
In addition, male victims may experience being raped as even more humiliating than female victims.[...] Reporting a rape to the police is at least as stressful for men as women (Groth and Burgess, 1980), but the extent to which victims subscribe to a male ethic of self reliance, reporting may be further depressed. As in nonsexual areas of their lives, men are generally expected to defend themselves against threats (Finklehor, 1984, p. 156-157). Along with this idea is the implicit belief that rape is synonymous with the loss of masculinity (Groth and Burgess, 1980; Adler, 1992). For these reasons, there may be substantial risk to the male rape victim’s self-concept in reporting this crime.[...] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1018837524712
Women equally rejected most male- and female-initiated strategies, but men were more accepting of female-initiated strategies. Results are explained in terms of sex role norms prescribing that men be initiators and women be gatekeepers in sexual interaction. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00289570
Those are just a few examples and many papers around the issue still use discriminatory definitions - which could mask the actual severity of the issue. Still though, suggesting specific behaviors such as peer pressure, intoxification, etc. is likely needed to account for the fact that men are likely to downplay it to something less than "against my will" as a coping strategy as well as to please social requirements regarding men and consent. Additionally, be it laws, law enforcement or friends and family - men have a good chance to be invalidated throughout the process, potentially inciting internalized uncertainty regarding the acceptability of the behavior. Just to be clear: different strategies were asked about - but after the victimization items. Also note than men were more likely to respond that none of the given strategies applied (see "other" as an answer in table 6), again stressing the need to include the male perspective when constructing surveys.
c) This is the most... surprising one and I'm genuinely a bit confused that they actually did this. The typo you might have noticed - i.e. them not putting (attempted) in front of made-to-penetrate as they did with all the others (despite claiming to have collected completed and attempted rape numbers and classifying mtp as rape)... It was not a typo and it is missing in the text, the survey items (Appendix A) as well as the results (Table 4). They excluded attempted made to penetrate yet included attempted penetrations and did not report any numbers by completed / attempted. Instead, all items were added up. So let's sum up the items on completed rape ourselves.
As shown on Table 4: Among completed rape, using the mentioned and discriminatory definitions, the 12-month-prevalence was 1.4% for men (0.1% were anally penetrated) and 1.5% for women (0.1% were made-to-penetrate).
Including the convenient forms of attempted rape - keep in mind what I said about this measure before - raises these numbers to: 1.7% for men and 2.2% for women.
Thus, once again we have no idea how high the rape numbers among men actually are, yet the numbers found are very similar to those found in the US (Edit: a bit higher as the CDC numbers combined completed and attemped cases) and suggest at least equal victimization.